Osteoporosis, which is a systemic disorder, which is painless by definition. However, it resulted in pain and worsen life quality by lowering bone density that leads to fragile bones and higher fractures risks. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) are common cause of back pain and deformity in the elderly which constitute a major health problem worldwide. It is estimated that OVCF will develop in 8 % of women older than 50 years and 27 % of men and women older than 65 years. OVCF results in loss of anterior vertebral height and causes spinal deformities. Beside the pain, it also reduced pulmonary function, restriction of the abdominal and thoracic contents, impaired mobility and clinical depression. Both 4- and 5-year mortality rates in patients with compression fractures in their thoracic or lumbar spine exceeded those of patients suffering from hip fractures. Treatment options range from conservative treatment to decrease pain and increase bone density to invasive, reconstructive surgeries. Vertebral augmentation procedures such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, offer far less invasive alternatives to open- spine surgery for pain control and prevent deformity progression. The objective of the article was to review the current research about the etiology and biomechanical point of view of the OVCF and the current treatment options. In conclusion, vertebral compression fractures are the most common type of osteoporotic fractures and may cause severe pain that disturb daily activity. Treatment options range from conservative treatment to invasive, reconstructive surgery such as vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Evidence suggests that physical disability, general health, and pain relief are better with vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty than those with medical management within the first 3 months after intervention. We need more high-quality raadomized trials to confirm its benefit compared with medical treatment.